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Pretty Potted Perennials

Growing perennials in pots has become an increasingly popular. If all you want is the summer color and have no expectations of the plant coming back the next spring growing a perennial in a pot is easy. If you are trying to over winter the plant in the pot things become a bit more challenging. This article will go into how to grow and over winter perennials in pots.

Contributors: Kerry Meyer

Growing perennials in pots has become increasingly popular. If all you want is the summer color and have no expectations of the plant coming back the next spring growing a perennial in a pot is easy. If you are trying to over winter the plant in the pot things become a bit more challenging. This article will go into how to grow and over winter perennials in pots.

In recent years growing perennials and shrubs in pots, plants previously reserved mainly for in ground plantings, has become increasingly popular.  I really enjoy the added options and interesting mixes you get by using perennials and shrubs in this manner.  While many people treat perennials (and even shrubs) planted in containers as annuals, discarding them at the end of the season, there are people who would like to over-winter these plants for use again the next year.

First, let me say there is nothing wrong with growing perennials or shrubs in pots and then discarding them at the end of the season.  After all, many plants that we grow as annuals in colder climates are perennials in warm winter climates, for instance marguerite daisies.  They are perennial in southern California but certainly an annual for me here in the Midwest.  We think nothing of growing these "annuals" for one season, discarding them into the compost pile (click here for information on composting) and then buying them new again next year.  There is no reason perennials cannot be treated the same.  If you garden in a small space and get easily bored, something I know happens to me, even though you can, you may not want to keep a perennial or shrub for next year.  Go ahead and start over.  As much as we hear about the "rules" of gardening, what is really important is that you enjoy your garden.

For those of you that do want to over-winter a perennial (or shrub) in a pot it can be done.  The easiest way to over-winter a plant in a pot is to choose one that will be hardy in the pot.  The rule of thumb for a plant to be winter hardy in a pot sitting on your patio is that it should be two zones hardier than the climate zone you live in (click here to find your zone).  I live in zone 5, to be certain a perennial in a pot is hardy for me I should choose a plant that is hardy to zone 3. 

The reason a plant in a pot needs to be hardier than one planted in the ground is that the soil in the pot will freeze harder than the ground.  The soil will also thaw out quicker than the ground.  This will lead to multiple freeze/thaw cycles throughout the winter.  Freeze/thaw action is especially hard on plants.  Plants in the ground benefit from the sheer mass of the surrounding land, the ground simply stays warmer than your pot will.  If you are a gambler you can try to over-winter a plant that is one zone hardier than your zone (for a zone 5 garden this would be a plant hardy in zone 4) in a pot that is left sitting out. Some winters you are likely to be successful, others the plant won't survive.  If you want to try to ensure your success choose a plant 2 zones hardier.

If you know you are going to leave your pot sitting outside all winter you should choose a container that won't break from the freeze/thaw action.  Clay, glazed and porcelain types of pots are susceptible to breaking in the winter.  Although I have, at times, successfully left pots of this type out all winter, I knew I was risking sacrificing the pot. Good choices for a container that is going to be left outside include plastic, composite, metal and wood pots.

A perennial or shrub in a pot isn't completely care free even in the winter.  Do not fertilize your plants while they are dormant.  Once they stop actively growing in the fall, stop fertilizing but still water when the soil is dry.  Do not begin fertilizing in the spring until active growth has resumed.  Throughout the winter your plant is still going to need some water.  If the soil gets completely dry, the plant can die of desiccation.  While regular watering isn't necessary, monitor the moisture level and water if the soil is dry.  Do not keep the soil soggy, as drowning your plant is also a real concern.  I tend to err on the side of too dry rather than too wet.  Make sure you place the pot in a location where it can drain, use pot feet or some other material to raise the pot off the ground to help with drainage.

If you do have a plant that is hardy to your zone or only one zone hardier (a zone 4 or 5 plant in my zone 5 climate) - and you don't want to gamble - you can still successfully over-winter these plants in pots.  You will simply have to do more than leave the pot sitting on the patio.  The first option is to place the pot in an unheated garage (or other unheated but protected spot).  The protection from the building will be enough to keep the pot from freezing too hard and to protect it from freeze/thaw cycles.  Wait as long as you can without risking the plant before placing it inside.  This unheated space can either be dark or have some light.   You will still need to make sure that the soil doesn't dry out completely. 

Another option, rather than using an unheated garage is to dig a hole in an empty or out of the way spot in your garden.  Place the pot (with the plant in it) into the hole.  Make sure the lip of the pot is either slightly above the ground or even with the ground.  Place the soil around the pot so it is secure.  Since the pot is buried it will remain the same temperature as the surrounding soil.  While you probably won't need to water this plant you should check it occasionally as it may need some supplemental water.  In the spring pull the planted container out of the ground, clean it up and place it back in its normal spot.  Once the plant starts actively growing begin fertilizing.

Option three is to wait until fall and then transplant the plant into the soil.  Leave it there through the winter and then dig it up in spring and put it back in the pot, or leave it permanently in its new home.

The final option is a technique that northern gardeners who grow hybrid tea roses know well.  In very cold climates the only way to over-winter hybrid tea roses is to dig a trench, tip the plant over into the trench and then cover it with soil or mulch to protect it for the winter.  This method will also work with potted perennials and shrubs.  In the spring simply uncover the plant, sit the pot upright, clean it up as necessary and move it to its normal spot.  Once the plant starts actively growing begin fertilizing.

Here is your crib sheet for over-wintering perennials in pots:

1.  In order to over-winter a perennial or shrub in a pot outside it needs to be two zones hardier than the zone you live in.

2.  Perennials that are in your zone or one colder can be over-wintered in an unheated garage, buried in the ground, or transplanted.

3.  Perennials in pots will need water through the winter but should not be kept wet.

4.  Do not fertilize through the winter, when active growth begins in the spring start fertilizing the plant.

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Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Wed, 09/02/2015 - 7:53am

Hi, I just bought a dick clark rosa and I wonder how to protect it this winter it's a zone 5 and I live in a zone 3-4 (Québec Canada). All my perinials are in pots (impossible for me to dig (leg problems) What should I do to save it. Love this flower so much. Just putting the pot in the ground doesn't seem to be enough because cannot take a guess on how much snow we will get this year. Anything you could suggest I would be very grateful.

Stacey Hirvela's picture
Stacey Hirvela Fri, 09/11/2015 - 1:07pm

Do they sell "rose cones" near you? If so, I think that would be your best bet. These are insulated "hats" that completely cover your plant. Make sure that it goes all the way to the soil surface - you may even want to put a layer or two of bubble wrap around it for extra insulation. Wait until the plant is completely dormant - has lost all of its foliage naturally - before doing this, however. If you can move the container to a protected spot where it will be out of the direction of the harshest winds and coldest weather but still outdoors, that would be a good idea.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Wed, 06/03/2015 - 8:54am

You can also overwinter vegetables. I have a jalapeno pepper bush that is maybe 8 years old? And numerous other pepper plants that I bring inside every year. Eventually, they go dormant (although some of the larger ones, like the jalapeno keep most of their foliage, and still produce a pepper or three inside)--for many, they APPEAR dead (leaves fall off, etc.). But they aren't. Come spring, they start to leaf out again. Trim back to the new growth, and wheel them out. Some plants work better than others (I've never had luck with Anaheims or Banana peppers...but Bell Peppers work well).

As for plants outside, I have a big pot on my deck for cilantro and one for chives. I harvest some, but let it self seed, and it's its own little ecosystem. Those don't come in at all.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Tue, 09/22/2015 - 8:39pm

I have 3 pepper plants that I over wintered last year in my basement under lights. The most I did was 5 seasons on a Jalapeno.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Wed, 05/27/2015 - 8:39pm

What happens if you sink the pot into the ground for the winter? Does the ground insulate the plant? Will the pot break?

Rick Schoellhorn's picture
Rick Schoellhorn Tue, 06/02/2015 - 8:59am

Hi there -

Sinking a pot in the ground will definitely help to insulate the pot and reduce freeze and thaw, but....
1. For ceramics pots - they will likely still break even sunk in the soil depending on the amount of freeze your garden goes through.
2. While they may be insulated, it is still harder for most plants to survive in a container than in the soil.
3. Make sure any containers get watered, as they will dry out faster than the soil around them.

So it can be helpful but it does not work miracles, the best thing to do is either plant all the your plants into the soil in late summer to give them time to establish before the first freezes, OR
Store containers in the garage or some other space that stays just at or above 35 degrees, again make sure plants stay watered, but not soggy through the winter.

Hope this helps!

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 11/15/2014 - 7:29am

What do you do with potted shurbs in though black pot when you buy them from like from Menards in the winter time if the freeze will the root or the bushes be ok

Rick Schoellhorn's picture
Rick Schoellhorn Tue, 06/02/2015 - 9:01am

Hi there -
The best thing to do is store these plants in a garage or enclosed space that does not freeze and hold them there, slightly moist, until spring.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Fri, 08/15/2014 - 3:40pm are so informative and easy to understand. Thanks so very much for the thoughts and details about fall planting. Once the annuals in them are withering, I want to fill 2 very large pots at my church with fall flowers and foliage. I will no longer feel guilty about using some perennials and then pulling them in the spring. The tip abut two zones hardier is fantastic. I really need YOU!
Thanks and God Bless YOU!

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 06/21/2014 - 2:39pm

What do you put on hydrangea plants to keep the blooms from having brown spots on them when they first start blooming?? Someone told me to put I think it was boriac acid on them and it was the same as Miracle Grow fertilizer. Is this ok. What I mixed with water and put on them was what you mix with water and soak your feet in.

Can you please help me? I have written and asked this question before, but have never received an answer.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 05/24/2014 - 5:37pm

I live in a NYC apt but since I love clematis I decided to try to grow one in a window box with a trellis (covering my bathroom window). It did great but then died over the winter, as had my tulip bulbs. The box was sitting on a window overlooking the Hudson River on the NYC side. There is nothing between my apt and the river so my plants are blasted with wind (and cold) in the winter. Since I don't have a garage, I decided to try to winter my next clematis in a ventilation shaft - which are common in most apt buildings. My gorgeous clematis is now flourishing in its fifth year! You can winter Clematis - even in a NYC apt!

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sun, 10/27/2013 - 2:52pm

I used to live in southern CA until recently and was an active horticulturist. This is first year I have planted perennials in ground and pots both in NW OH at my new condo. I thought you should wait until all/most above ground foliage is brown and dry to cut back because plant is still photosynthesizing... is that true and if so will they die back at same time in a pot as ground?

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Tue, 08/13/2013 - 11:25am

Thank you. The information was very helpful and easy to understand. One question - Do you cut the perennial back?

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 06/21/2014 - 2:35pm

I have a blue hydrangea that bloomed beautifully for a year or two. Someone told me that putting the same thing you soak your feet in, mixed with water, was the same fertilizer as Miracle Grow. I did this and ever since when the blooms start there have been brown spots on the blooms. What do I put on the plant to keep this from happening????

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sun, 10/27/2013 - 3:00pm

I am not facebook savvy, so I wondered if you might be so kind as to answer a question I thought I posted a question about my subject line above but did not see it show up in the thread of page. Did I do it right or not?

Kerry Meyer's picture
Kerry Meyer Fri, 10/18/2013 - 1:46pm

I would trim back dead foliage or stems, unless they have ornamental value through the winter.  Otherwise, I would wait untii spring to do your pruning.


Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Tue, 05/14/2013 - 6:29am

Excellent easy to understand article. Exactly what I was looking for.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Mon, 05/14/2012 - 12:21pm

Can I save geraniums by putting the potted plant in garage?

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 08/15/2015 - 12:43pm

In NC, I hang my geraniums on hooks inside the garage windows during winter. Besides surviving, they're easier to deal with: don't have to put them on shelving, easier to water, get enough sun that they continue blooming. When the new growth starts in the springtime, I cut out the woody parts OR propagate the best growth. Enjoy!

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Wed, 05/16/2012 - 11:23am

I have been able to do it for the last two years. You absolutely can. Cut off the dead, water, and fertilize them--then place in the garage. Hopefully you have a window or two that will allow a little sun. They will come back and be lovely! Well, at least mine were :).

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 04/14/2012 - 7:03pm

Thank you for all tips. they are very well explained and very easy to understand.

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