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The Dirt on Dirt - Potting Soil

How to choose a good potting soil.

Contributors: Rick Schoellhorn

What makes a good potting mix?

Almost any article on plants ends with "and make sure you use a good potting mix" - great advice, but what does it mean? Let’s go over some of the basics and see if we can answer that question. To know what a good potting mix is you kind of need to know what the purpose of a potting mix is, so let’s discuss that first. The main functions of a potting mix are:

  1. To hold moisture and nutrients around your plants roots, acting as a reservoir for these critical elements of life in your container garden.
  2. To provide enough air for growing roots to be able to breath and not rot once you plant your container. Most people don’t think about this, but it is critical to have a good amount of air in the soil.  Not enough and usually the plant roots have a hard time surviving.
  3. To support your plant, providing anchorage for the roots. A soil mix needs to settle around the roots of your plant and help hold it in place, so that it doesn’t blow over from the first wind.  However, it also needs to be light enough to allow water and air to always be present under the soil surface so your plant’s roots have a balanced atmosphere to grow in.

So given that a good potting mix does these things, any number of different materials can be used.  I know many gardeners use soil from their garden in their pots, some make their own compost and add this to their containers. You can do any of these things, but if you are making your own potting soil at home you will also need to change the way you water and fertilize in order to get the best results. From hydroponics to sewer sludge, there are a million ways to mix up a potting soil, however, the potting soil you buy at most garden centers is a simpler blend of some basic items.

Rules of Thumb For Choosing a Potting Soil:

  1. Potting soil used in containers should be light and fluffy.
  2. Look for a potting soil made up of peat moss, pine bark and perlite or vermiculite
  3. Fertilizer may be added in the form of a "starter charge" or slow release formulation.  Adjust your fertilization practices accordingly
  4. Potting soil may use moisture retaining treatments, watering patterns may need to be altered if you use a potting soil containing these substances.

What is in potting soil?

Most potting soil you buy in a garden center are comprised of three basic ingredients: peat moss, pine bark, and either perlite or vermiculite (to provide air space).

Peat moss comes from the peat bogs of the northern United States and Canada; this is usually considered the higher quality type of peat moss. There are some peat bogs in the southern US, but they generally are considered to be slightly lower quality. Peat moss provides a great moisture retaining quality with good air space for healthy growing roots. For acid loving plants, like azaleas or Hydrangeas, this is sometimes the very best potting mix, however, for most flowering annuals peat moss by itself is too acidic.  So it is usually best to go with a blended potting mix that has all three ingredients. You can use straight peat moss as your potting mix, but be careful not to overwater.  Peat moss all by itself can stay wet for a long time after watering.

NOTE: If you buy a bag of straight peat moss and it very dry, you may find that it repels water.  If you run into this problem, the best thing you can do is soak the peat moss either in the bag you bought it in or in a wheelbarrow or bucket.  Usually soaking it overnight will get things well saturated and then it can be easier to use. Once it has been saturated, it will usually go back to retaining water with no further issues.

Pine Bark comes from paper mills all over the United States and Canada and acts to provide some moisture and fertilizer retention, and also a bit more air space. All by itself pine bark does not provide enough of anything to really support plant life (except for possibly orchids, see below under specialty mixes), but once it is mixed with peat moss - pine bark adds a new dimension and helps extend the ‘life’ of the potting mix by being relatively slow to break down.

Perlite & Vermiculite are both volcanic in origin and both are put into potting mix to provide additional air space and to lighten things up so a potting mix is not too dense and heavy. Perlite does not provide any nutritional benefit and can collect fluoride if water containing it.  That means that flouride concentrates after a while and can burn the leaf tips of some houseplants like Dracaena and spider plant (Chlorophytum). It is rarely a problem with any outdoor flowering plants, so don’t worry if it is in your potting soil unless you are growing these plants. Vermiculite is a bit different in that it holds a lot of moisture and can also hold onto fertilizer for a period of time - helping to keep nutrients around the roots of your plants instead of washing out the bottom of the pot. There are even soil mixes that recycle styrofoam to serve the same purpose as perlite and vermiculite, this is also fine, but eventually the styrofoam rises to the top of the pot and blows in the wind, which can be a bit annoying.

To summarize: Peat moss provides moisture and nutrient retention.  Pine bark provides anchorage, some nutrient and moisture retention and air space.  Perlite and vermiculite provide most of the air space in the soil.

Quality ≠ weight

A lot of consumers confuse heavy potting soil with good potting soil. In most cases when a bag of potting soil is very heavy there are two reasons for it; it is either water soaked or it contains a lot of sand. In either case it isn't a good thing. If a potting soil is soaked it can begin to break down in the bag - losing all its air space, becoming compacted and is at risk for carrying root rot diseases besides being nearly impossible to get into your car.  Adding sand to a potting mix is another issue.  Unless you are growing cacti, adding sand (which provides anchorage and some air space) is usually not a great idea. In general, sand is added to a potting mix simply because it is a cheap filler.  Sand was used instead of more expensive components like peat moss or pine bark. If you live someplace with very high winds, a little sand can help hold plants in place, but in general it is not needed.

Fungal growth on potting soil

Most prepared soils that are bagged and sold at garden centers and home supply stores have been prepared months in advance of the actual sale. Normally, these mixed soils are composed, sterilized or at least heat-treated to eliminate any diseases, weed seeds and other pathogens that could ultimately impact what you are going to pot and grow in the soil. When you break open the bag and use the mix, you are exposing that sterile soil to a huge assortment of native fungi spores that are ambient in your home and garden. The sterile soil is a perfect home for these fungi (or mildews) since there is no competition for the organic material that makes up the soil mix. These fungi grow fast, especially when given the ideal growing conditions (which seem to be identical to those conditions we want to grow our new spring plants in.) Under normal outdoor growing conditions the fungi are usually short lived. Drying the soil mix out, exposure to sunlight and simply being exposed to other competitive organisms, the mildews disappear through rapid attrition.

Most of the time, the appearance of these mildews that grow on the soil means absolutely nothing to the health of the plants you are about to plant; other than an indicator that perhaps the soil is too moist or has too much organic material in it. If you want to eliminate the mildew issue, open the bag a few days before you use it and spread it out on a sheet or cloth, expose it to the sunlight, and then re-bag or put it into a soil bin when it is dry. You can use the soil without worry either fresh out of the bag or "conditioned and dried".

What is the difference between garden soil, manure products and mulch?

It can be really confusing to go to a garden center and try to pick out potting mix when it is mixed in with so many other options. But to keep it simple, just buy potting mix for your containers (look for a bag that says Soilless Potting Mix); all the other bags are for use in the garden or landscape.

Garden soil is essentially potting soil with a lot of other heavier and cheaper additives like compost, sand, clay and an assortment of other things depending on the manufacturer. It ‘can’ be used as a potting mix, but you run the risk of it being mucky and pulling away from the sides of the pot when it dries out, in general garden soil is for enriching the garden.

Manure products are great for the outside garden since they are rich in nitrogen, but not so good for pots since all that nitrogen tends to burn up your flowers instead of fertilizing them. Without making this a chemistry lesson, manure products need to be diluted into your landscape at a rate of about one part manure to two parts landscape soil. Using a manure based soil amendment directly on the roots of landscape plants or flowers will usually cause all the roots to burn and actually delay the plant getting a good start in your garden. So use them with care!  Also most manure related products contain a LOT of sand, which makes them heavier - too dense for good use in containers.

Mulch  is usually a raw wood product (bark, wood chunks, shredded wood, etc.) it is meant to be used on the surface of the soil to help keep water from evaporating, so that garden and landscape plants stay moist longer with less water and fewer weeds. Since they are raw wood products, they don’t work well mixed into your flower pots.  Raw wood products suck up all the available nitrogen from the soil as they break down and this means your plants look starved and yellow-green because they can’t get enough food to grow. Keep mulch products on top of the soil in your garden and landscape where they are meant to be.  They are great for decreasing water loss and if applied thick enough add some protection from annual weeds.

Fertilizer starter charge vs. Slow release fertilizer

More and more you see bagged potting mix with highlighted improvements on the bag. One of the more common ways potting soil is enhanced is with either a starter charge of fertilizer in the mix or slow release fertilizer mixed into the soil. Both are great ideas and help make things easier for you as a gardener, but there are a couple things you should know.

A “starter charge” of fertilizer means there is a minimal amount of fertilizer in the potting mix, but it is minimal and does not mean you don’t ever need to fertilize.  It just means you don’t need to fertilize right away.  Most starter charges are gone from the potting soil after watering two to three times. A starter charge can help you a little at planting, but you still need to regularly fertilize as well.

A slow release fertilizer in the bag means you have more fertilizer incorporated to help your plants transition into their new home, but it rarely lasts beyond the first month.  So again, you need to make sure you are regularly fertilizing in addition to the fertilizer in the bag.  One problem that we have seen with this slow release fertilizer is that if the bags of potting mix sit around for a long time or get wet and sit around, the fertilizer in the potting mix releases inside the bag and then when you plant your flowers they burn up due to too much nitrogen (similar to the problems with using manure products). So if you are buying potting mix with fertilizer added to it, check to make sure the bags are not wet and that the potting mix doesn’t look like it has been sitting around a really long time.

Moisture retaining treatments:

Like the fertilizer add-ins, a lot of potting mix is beginning to come with moisture retaining gels and chemicals added as well. Again, this can be a help in reducing watering over the course of the season and there really is no down side to it. You will need to exercise a little extra care not to overwater your flowers when the temperatures are still cool since the soil will not dry out as quickly as you are used to.  You also need to realize that most of these ‘moisture retainers’ will not allow you to leave for three weeks and have everything stay looking good.  The moisture holding ability of the soil breaks down over the season and by mid to late summer it is likely not doing much anymore.  So when you most need water holding ability - when it is really hot - it may no longer be working. 

NOTE: Just because the potting mix is moist doesn’t mean the plant won’t need fertilizer, a lot of gardeners live where there is enough rain to keep the potting soil moist, however, you still need to make sure that the plant has regular fertilization to grow well. A plant can starve to death in a moist potting soil, especially if there is a lot of rain washing nutrients out of the soil.

Specialty potting soils:

While the basic peat moss, pine bark and perlite type potting mixes will work fine for almost all annual flowers and mixed containers, there are some crops for which specialty mixes might be helpful. The most common is potting mix for orchids.

1.   Orchids require excellent drainage and most general potting soils are too heavy and hold too much water, so if you want to have healthy orchids you may want to purchase a specialty potting mix.

2.   Also succulents and cacti, require better drainage than annual flowers and in many cases prefer clay pots as well. Many succulent collectors use a regular potting mix and mix it with 50% sand, it makes the mix very heavy, but very fast draining.

Mixing potting soils

Like all aspects of gardening people succeed doing a lot of things differently and some gardeners really swear by mixing their own potting soils using everything from lawn clippings to fish heads to powdered clay.  As long as you adjust your watering and fertilizing to match your mix, plants are pretty forgiving and in some cases do even better with custom mixes, so feel free to experiment. However, there is one last thing that I think happens often enough that it might be worth noting here.

Have you ever run out of one potting soil in the middle of planting and had to switch to another type of potting soil half way through a large container? I know I have.  If you find yourself in this situation, I have a tip for you.  Make sure to blend the two types of potting soil as much as possible. By mixing them together you get an even blend of potting soil and your plants will do better. If you just pour a totally different potting mix on top of a different one and don’t mix them there is the possibility that if the two mixes are different enough your plants will have a hard time growing down through one mix and into the other.  There are a lot of reasons for this and rather than making this into a physics lesson, just take my word for it - blend potting soils if you find yourself having to switch in the middle of a container.  Your plants will thank you.

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Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Mon, 08/31/2015 - 1:05pm

Could you tell me a good potting medium for planting a hydrangea in pots

Stacey Hirvela's picture
Stacey Hirvela Fri, 09/11/2015 - 1:05pm

You can use any regular potting soil that you find at your local garden center. If you find one that is a bit heavier on the bark (potting soils usually list their ingredients somewhere on the bag), that would make it an especially good choice, but really, any fresh, well-drained potting mix will do.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Mon, 07/20/2015 - 5:23pm

I've been a horticulture hobbyist on and off for a little more than a decade, and was brought here because this year I've been getting away from brand name potting soils and more into mixing my own. Today was the first day I'd run into water-repelling peat moss, and this came up first on google.

So I got my answer on *that*, but let me give my $0.02 on some of the other questions I see arising in the comments:

I know that a lot of people shy away from brand names, and tend toward "organic" potting soil very quickly - but I have two things to say about that.
1) The word "organic" is not very delicately legislated. There are SOME laws concerning its use, but not enough for it to actually mean anything. Unless you're personally familiar with the production of your soil, just assume the word "organic" doesn't mean anything.
2) I'm making my own soil because I find it an interesting addition to my hobby, but for many years I've used bagged mixes. After many experiments with different soils, back when I began my hobby, I found Miracle Gro Moisture Control Potting Mix to be tops. If you're not gung ho about making your own soil, I highly suggest giving it a try - it works as advertised. Even works with hefty plants that require a little more packing; you can shove down on it pretty hard and still have no worries about drainage.

There really isn't an amount of expertise that allows one soil to be better than another, it's about the soil. You won't graduate to a knowledge level where the soil you used as a beginner now yields worse results than the bagged soil "for experts." If you don't make your own, and you don't want to mess around with mixing types for tweaked, desired effects, then the same soil that's right for a beginner is right for a veteran. (Basically - don't overthink it and end up ego-ing yourself out of using the "soil for beginners".)

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Thu, 07/16/2015 - 9:41am

I have my spider plant in a mix with top soil but it doesn't seem to be draining quickly. I want to switch out the soil but am not sure what I should get. I know the plants can be picky with soil. I was going to purchase a regular miracle grow potting soil but they all have some kind of feed in them, that is supposed to feed the plant from 3-6 months. Would this be ok? What would you recommend?

Kerry Meyer's picture
Kerry Meyer Mon, 07/27/2015 - 2:40pm

Miracle gro with a starter charge should be fine. It is difficult to find a potting soil these days without an incorporated fertilizer.


Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Thu, 06/04/2015 - 12:55pm

I recently purchased garden soil on sale (miracle grow) and mixed it with perlite for my potted container plants. I believe this is too heavy and my plants seem bogged down, some are even burning on the tips (prayer plant amd spider plants inside). What can I mix with this to make it more light and airy? I plan on taking all of them out and remixing the garden soil/perlite mix over the weekend in an attempt to save my potted plants. Thanks!

Rick Schoellhorn's picture
Rick Schoellhorn Sat, 06/06/2015 - 7:09am

HI there!

I think the problem here is the perlite not the soil. Perlite contains fluoride and in addition over time it collects fluoride from water and concentrates it into the soil of your plants, for most plants that are not sensitive (like petunias and outdoor flowers) it is not a problem but certain plants (especially houseplants) are very sensitive to this. Both prayer plant and spider plant are known to be very touchy to fluoride in their soil (as are Dracaena, aspidistra, and some others).

So my suggestion is do not use perlite, you are better off with polystyrene (like styrafoam) though it can settle to the top of the soil and be a bit more messy, vermiculite (though it does not aerate quite as well) or get some orchid bark chunks and use that instead of perlite.

Here is a helpful website describing the problem and hopefully we got back to you before you started repotting!!
Best of luck!

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 05/16/2015 - 9:32pm

I started growing indoors my tomatoes and peppers in potting mix soil and were doing great, but when i transplanted them in bigger pots outside and I switched to the manure soil my peppers died and my tomatoes start having white spots and seem not to grow anymore. What do I need to do? Is it a soil problem? Do I need to use a fertilizer? What type? Thank you.

Rick Schoellhorn's picture
Rick Schoellhorn Tue, 06/02/2015 - 9:04am

Hi there
I am not sure what you mean by manure soil, but it sounds like you are burning the tomato and pepper plants when you transplant them.

Tomato and Pepper like good rich garden soil, and a weekly feeding with a basic garden fertilizer high in phosphorus but with all nutrients. Something like this can be purchased as an organic or inorganic fertilizer at your local garden center.

However the 'manure soil' you refer to is what concerns me, what is this? Is it bagged manure you buy at a garden center? If so this should always be mixed 50:50 with your regular garden soil and no stronger, otherwise the salt level in the manure will kill all the roots on your plants before they have a chance.

Hope this helps?

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Mon, 05/04/2015 - 9:35am

Fertilizers in potting soil have become very common. I don't mind it for my flowers, but don't vegetables require different fertilizer combinations than flowers?

Rick Schoellhorn's picture
Rick Schoellhorn Tue, 06/02/2015 - 9:06am

Great question!!

Actually the fertilizer used by flowers and vegetables are essentially the same, they get packaged differently to help consumers choose what they want for the garden task they are working on but a good balanced fertilizer will work equally well for both flowers and vegetables!

Thanks for asking it is a really good question!

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sun, 03/29/2015 - 11:28am

I have several orchids on a South window ledge. A large leaf plant and a miniature plant. They both seem to be getting wilty leaves. I think I am over watering them. The other orchid plants are Cattleyas they seems to be too dry. The pods on the Cattleyas are shriveling up and there are about 8 or 9 pods in a pot. I was told to re-pot them and split up the batch into 2 groups. What is a good soil mixture?

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 03/14/2015 - 10:55pm

Dear writer & editor of this post,

Potting soil is dirt, potting mix is a soil-less growing media suitable for containers.

Potting soil is for filling in low spots in the ground, a raised bed etc.

Potting mix is for containers.

STOP USING THE TWO WORDS INTERCHANGEABLY. That action confuses beginner gardeners who are looking to you for guidance.

Rick Schoellhorn's picture
Rick Schoellhorn Tue, 03/17/2015 - 10:27am

Thanks for bringing it up - Unfortunately no two soil manufacturers use the definitions the same way, so the best thing to do is find a potting 'soil or 'mix' that works for you and stick with it. For many gardeners the heavier 'soil' holds more moisture and actually helps them to keep plants evenly moist, for other these heavy 'soils' make a muddy mess and drown their plants.

We agree it is confusing for new gardeners, and agree with you. Unfortunately it is not true in every part of the continent, or even garden center to garden center. The best mix to use for most gardeners is a potting 'mix' but for many potting 'soil' may be the only option and a good one.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Wed, 02/25/2015 - 6:21pm

Whats your thoughts on using worm castings

Rick Schoellhorn's picture
Rick Schoellhorn Thu, 02/26/2015 - 11:25am

On worm castings, there is no down side. They are always helpful, how much help they provide depends on your location in the US and to some degree on the plants you are growing, but definitely they are worth trying, they can only improve the soil!

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Wed, 12/10/2014 - 11:29am

Can the same potting mix be used for my indoor houseplants and my outdoor balcony container plants?

Cindy Meyers's picture
Cindy Meyers Wed, 12/10/2014 - 12:10pm

In most cases, yes. In the case of herbs, African Violets and Succulents; they need the potting soil to be mixed with some sand and pebbles for drainage to perform at their best.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 09/13/2014 - 6:38am

We are having a landscape redone for a public building. The landscape contractor (LC) contracted to rototill into the existing soil 6" of high quality and expensive potting soil. The existing soil had 6" of dirt over 6" of sand. With out getting approval from me, landscape architect, the LC tills in their proprietary mix. Their proprietary mix cost about $20 per cubic yard as opposed to $37 per cubic yard for the mix specified.

The LC provided a list of ingredients that are: loam 25%, garden compost 45%, and sharp sand 20%.
The other ingredients are manure, fine bark, bone meal, fish meal, feather meal, humic acid, and mycorhizae but the ratios were not provided. Does this sound like a good mix for shrubs and trees?

We may need to involve a soils lab now. What should we test for? Shall we ask them to test for NPK fertilizer percentages, peat moss, pine bark, and compost?

Their proprietary mix has a black color in the fines. What do you think this is?

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 04/12/2014 - 7:55am

I wish I had read this three weeks ago. The information is great. I am going to have to replant my firecracker plants as they do not seem to be thriving and I did use some of the soil from last year that was at the bottom of the pots and then added gardening soil. We have had a huge amount of rain and when I go outside the next day the flower pots are totally dry a couple of inches down. My neighbor said to just add miracle gro, but after reading this, I feel I should replant. What do you think?
Thanks for the tip.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Mon, 03/31/2014 - 5:47pm

excellent article as I have had problems with the potting soil mixes that I have thought were best for my plants. You have helped greatly, and i am excited to get started !

Kelly Geoghegan's picture
Kelly Geoghegan Mon, 04/07/2014 - 4:28pm

Glad we could help!
Kelly Geoghegan PW

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 03/29/2014 - 9:35pm

Very detailed article. I am just a beginner. I thought buying potting soil or making my own would be a good idea. After reading your article I think the stuff I purchased for making potting soil was a waste of money for me as I do not use pots but rather plant in the ground outside as I buy them from a nursery. I intend to start some seeds in pots and then transplant them in the ground so maybe I need to know the difference between potting soil and seed starting soil. Also need to learn what I need to improve the soil to give newly planted plants a good start.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 06/20/2015 - 5:37pm

I've had very good results when using Miracle-Gro Moisture Control Potting (Mix?)" when I plant in the heavy clay soil around here. Putting plants in that clay soil does NOT work well, but digging out a nice big hole and using mostly potting soil, mixed well with the clay stuff around the edges, makes a big difference! It's more expensive than just using "garden soil" or "top soil," but I know the plants do well despite the clay underneath.

Kerry Meyer's picture
Kerry Meyer Thu, 04/10/2014 - 9:48am

A good soilless potting mix will work well for starting most seeds, you don't really need a mix that is specifically for starting seeds, although there is nothing wrong with using a seed start mix.  Seed starting mixes usually have a finer texture, but other than that they are pretty close to the same as a regular potting mix.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Wed, 02/26/2014 - 8:33pm

All the information I needed and mulch more! Thank you!!!!

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 01/25/2014 - 10:57am

Your impressions have verified for me, what I've read and seen online this morning about repotting my plants. Will be heading to local gardening supply with confidence. Thanks.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Wed, 09/11/2013 - 6:06pm

Wonderfully informative article on mixing potting soils!

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Tue, 09/03/2013 - 9:23am

I recently bought a greenhouse and planting about 30 2.5 L containers with fall veggies. I used a mix of about half miracle gro potting mix and half miracle grow vegetable soil. I mixed it well. Will this be too much "soil". They seem to drain relatively well so far. Thanks, jonathan in Oregon.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Mon, 04/22/2013 - 4:54am

Thank you!! I took notes and learned about what I need to buy today. Much appreciated.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Mon, 04/22/2013 - 4:54am

Thank you!! I took notes and learned about what I need to buy today. Much appreciated.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Fri, 03/15/2013 - 11:16am

you listed good and bad for clay soil but not for this? otherwise good website for research.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Fri, 06/29/2012 - 8:42pm

Last year I used moisture control potting soil. But it seems there is a "red" stain that seeps from the drain hole. In my larger containers, I have "peanuts" in the bottom. Smaller containers I used coffee filters over the drain holes. This year I did not purchase the moisture control soil and the red seepage seems to have stopped. Would the red stain be from the gels in the moisture control soil? It makes a mess of my concrete patios.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Tue, 05/15/2012 - 5:28pm

I think people would be more likely, some, to take advice when they know the why and how. Conceptualizing something that way would make it memorable . Thanks for the tips.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Mon, 05/14/2012 - 11:49pm

i am studying horticulture and have trouble finding good information for homework, your website is great. thankyou.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 05/05/2012 - 12:48am

Great information, Especially about the fungal growth.

I immunise my potting mix by letting it sit for months exposed to the elements and water it every now and again. This way their should be an oversupply of organism's that compost as opposed to those that parasite plants, Seeing as no plants were present for them to live off!

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Mon, 04/30/2012 - 6:39pm

Very informative

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Thu, 04/19/2012 - 8:48pm

Thanks for the tips ! My plants are beautiful!

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous Sat, 02/18/2012 - 8:09am

Great Tips....counting the days to plant here!

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